Historical Developments in Biological Control – Recent Advances 1962 Onwards
Impact of Book Silent Spring (1962) on the practice of pest management resulted in wide discussion concerning about developing problems of synthetic insecticides. This discussion has led to search for alternative methods of pest control. Thus again strengthening of research on parasitoids, predators and pathogens was initiated for ecofriendly approach in pest suppression.
Two multinational co-operative groups i.e. CIBC and IOBC organized to promote cause of biological control become stronger than ever more than half dozen field stations were maintained around the world to provide collection and rearing services of natural enemies. In India, (CIBC) center was located at Bangalore and Information of bioagents was carried through it. The IOBC was expended beyond original 16 countries.
1. There are 5 regional stations:
2. West Peleactic regional action.
3. Western Hemisphere regional section.
4. SPE Asian regional section.
5. Tropical Africa regional sections.
6. Pacific Regional section.
IOBC remained the important channel for the exchange of ideas and information regarding biological control on a worldwide basis. In 1962, the predaceous snail, Euglaelina roses F. was introduced from Bermuda and it was released in Orissa to control a new pest i.e. Giant African snail, Achatina fulica F. So far 120 pests in 65 countries of the world have been controlled by using biological control.
In 1962, prickly pear, Opuntia dillenil was controlled by cochineal insect Doctylopis tomentosus covering area of about one lakh acre. Successful introduction of lepidopterous nymph and adult parasitoid, Epiricania melanoleuca against sugarcane pyrilla, predator C. monstrouceiri against mealy bugs. Zygogramma bicolorata beetles feeding on parthenium weeds, Apentelus sp. Beacon sp. the research was in progress.
Use of insect pathogen like Bt formulated product baculoviruses viz. NPV against H. armigera, S. liura etc Granulosis virus against sugarcane stem borer, fungi, Beauveria bassiana against various insect pests in different parts of the country are under progressive use for last few decades. Thus, historical development of biological control is in great progress and within reach. Most diverse research efforts are expanded than ever before in this field.