History of Indian Agriculture – Early Development:
The early Aryans (Bronze Age people)
Period: 1800 to 1600 of B.C
They depended on wheat, Barley, millets, pulses, sesame, mustard & Animal husbandry.
The Vedic age (1560-100B.C)
The profession of farming was regarded as only far the unlearned and those devoid of wisdom. It remained so far centuries.
The later Vedic period (1000-600B.C)
Wooden ploughs were provided with Iron ploughshares, their efficiency further improved. This Improvement helped the Aryans to cultivate the virgin land resulted to greater mastery over food production.
The Buddhist period (Sixth century BC)
Brahmans were found pursuing Village, Cow herding, goat keeping, trade, woodwork weaving, archery and carriage driving. The hired labour apparently was assigned a low social rank.
The Magadhan Empire (fourth century BC)
Formations of villages started in this period. Plantation of bushes & tree, collection of seeds, fruit, flowers, fiber etc started.
The Asoka Period
Promoted forestry & horticulture, encouraged plantation of trees in gardens and along roads in the farm of avenues
First century BC to second century AD
First plough agriculture to replace slash & burn cultivation. Knowledge of distant markets, origination of village settlements & breaded also some.
Age of the Guptas (300-500AD)
This period is called golden age of India. Provides information an agriculture besides other sciences. Deals with selection of land, manuring, cultivate, seed collection, sowing, planting & grafting. Amarasoka contains information on soil village & irrigation.
Empire of the Harshvardhana (606-647 AD)
The source of information on agriculture curling this period is writings of early Arab writers.
The Muslim Rule (1206-1761 Ad)
Land revenue system was improved. Taguai loans were given to cultivators in distressed circumstance for the purchase of seed & Cattle.
The British rule & free India (1757-1947)