Importance of Ovule Culture
1. Test Tube Pollination and Fertilization:
Through ovule culture, test tube pollination and fertilization can be done. By technique, it may be possible to germinate pollen in the same culture as the excised ovule and to induce a vitro fertilization leading to the formation of mature seeds containing viable embryos.
2. Application in Hybridization:
Ovule culture has been successfully employed to obtain hybrid seedlings in Interspecific and Intergeneric crosses. In several interspecific crosses, the hybrid embryo of Abelmoschus fails to develop beyond the heart or torpedo-shaped embryo. By ovule cultures, viable hybrids have been obtained in three out of five crosses attempted in Abelmoschus species.
Although hybrid plants have not been obtained between different species of cotton through fertilized ovule culture, but seed development and the production of fibre from the cultures ovule have been demonstrated.
3. Production of Haploid Callus:
It is possible to obtain haploid callus by culturing unfertilized ovules.
4. Ovule Cultures of Orchid Plants:
In nature, the seeds of orchid germinate only in association with a proper fungus. As a result numerous seeds are lost due to unavailability of proper fungus. Besides this the seed capsule of many orchids takes a long time to mature. To overcome such problems, several attempts have been made to culture the fertilized ovule of orchid in vitro.
5. Induction of Polyembryos:
In horticultural practises, the artificial induction of polyembryos holds a great potential. It has been observed that the nucellus of mono-embryonic ovules of citrus can be induced to form adventive embryos in culture.
6. Virus Irradication:
In the varieties of citrus which are impossible to free of virus by other means, the ovule culture has proved decisively advantages to make them virus free.