Important Diseases of Wheat

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Important Diseases of Wheat

1. Rust
2. Flag smut
3. Leaf blight (Alternaria blight)
4. Foot rot
5. Loose smut

1. Rust:

Symptoms:

1. Wheat crop is affected by three types of rusts i.e. black, brown and yellow.
2. In case of black rust elongated brown colored pustules (rusty outgrowth of fungus) are appeared on stalk, leaf sheath and leaves which further turn black and burst.
3. In case of brown rust small, rounded, reddish brown pustules are formed on leaves in clusters which further burst and turn black.
4. In case of yellow rust strips of yellow coloured pustules are occurred on leaves and stalks.
5. All the rusts result in reduction in yield as well as quality of grains and straw.
6. High yielding varieties of irrigated wheat are more susceptible to rust.

C.M:

1. Grow rust resistant varieties and avoid late sowing.
2. Do not use excess dose of nitrogenous fertilizers.
3. Spray a mixture of 10kg urea + 1875 gm Zineb (dithane Z-78) in 500 lit. water for two times at flag leaf stage and flowering stage.
4. Dust fine sulphur @ 30 kg/ha. at 4 days interval.

2. Loose Smut:

Symptoms:

1. The flag leaf turn yellow and starts drying from the tip which later becomes brownish in colour.
2. The spikelets are affected and black powder is produced in place of wheat grains.

C.M.:

1. Solar heat treatment or hot water treatment to seed.
2.Grow resistant varieties.
3. Rogue out diseased earheads and destroy them by burning.

3. Flag smut:

Symptoms:

1. First grayish-black, long streak appears on leaves.
2. Later these streaks rupture and black powdery mass of spores comes out.
3. The affected leaves become twisted and assume a drooping habit (flagging) fallowed by withering.
4. Affected plant remains stunted and there is no ear formation.

C.M.:

1. Grow resistant varieties.
2. Seed treatment with agrosan or ceresin @ 2.5 gm/kg seed.
3. Rogue out diseased plants and destroy them by burning.

4. Foot rot:

Symptoms:

1. First dark brown patches appear on collar region of plant which later on get rottened.
2. Affected plant turns yellow and dries up.

C.M.:

1. Seed treatment with agrosan or ceresan @ 2.5 gm/kg seed.
2. Apply heavy irrigation for seed bed preparation.

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