Improved Dryland Technologies And Weed Management
Mixed cropping is traditionally adopted in rained areas for risk distribution during adverse weather conditions there by achieving yield stability. Now the mixed cropping has changed to intercropping due to substantial research efforts. The intercropping has proved substantial yield advantage over sole crop. It also gives greater stability of yields over different seasons. The intercropping is more popular among the small farmers to meet their need for different crops.
The intercropping is more advantageous during Kharif than rabi season.
Points to be considered while selecting crops for intercropping:
i) Both the crops should have differential growth habit
ii) They should have different crop growth period.
iii) There should be more competition tree period between these two crops.
iv) They should have differential requirements interspect at nutrients and soil moisture.
v) They should have different feeding zones.
vi) Mostly there should be a combination of cereal and legume.
Eg .Bajra + Tur – 2:1 proportion
Cotton + green gram – 2: 1 proportion
Sorghum + green gram 2: 1 proportion
Sunflower + Tur – 2: 1 proportion
Sorghum + Tur 2: 1 proportion
Fertilizer use in dryland:
>p>Next to moisture, Fertilizer use is an reertant factor for increasing the yield of dryland crops. The soils of drylancare low in N low to medium in P and rich in available K. The research breeds out in fertilizer use of various crops have suggested ad definite resense to fertilize, application. The fertilizer application not only increase are vield of dry land crops but also enhance the growth and maturity of the nops. Based on the results of various trials conducted at Solapur the nacwing economic fertilizer doses are recommended for dryland crops.
Recommended fertilize does (Kg/ha)
A) Scarcity zone (Solapur)
3. Gr. Nut
4. Horse gram
5. Kidney bean
B) Assured rainfall zone (Akola)
4. Tur, Mung, Urid, Gr. Nut
The time and method of application of fertilizer are also imcutant because of moisture limitation of dryland. The fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing by placement method. For this purpose, Solapur centre has developed two bowl ferti seed drill which now become more sepular among the farmers.
The response top application to deep black soils is limited the to high p fixation due to calcium content. For Rabi crops advance placement of p by 10 – 20 days before actual sowing is usual practice.
The soils of dryland are medium to rich in available K and hence no sponse to K application.
Under light textured soils boron application
@ 5 kg Borax x / ha at in ernate years to groundnut is recommended for dry lands of Maharashtra.
Under intercropping systems, there is no need to apply additional utilizes to intercrop of legume under cereal + legume combination.
Under sequence cropping under dry lands, when cereal is grown after gumes like green gram, black gram, the N application may be reduced by 5 to 30 kg N / ha to cereal or oil seed crops like sorghum sunflower of safflower.
1. Weed Management: It is estimated that weed cause about 37 to 79% pass to the crop production in dryland agriculture where moisture is the most limiting factor. The research findings on weed – crop competition in Dryland indicated that in crops with 80 to 120 days duration first 20 to 30 lays period is more sensitive to competition from weeds. Checking weed growth during this period helps in to minimize the loss in crop production. The results with perarlmillet at Solapur confirm the above observations.
Weed control through chemicals: Chemicals are found to be as effective as mechanical measures in controlling the weeds in dryland agriculture. Use of Atrazine @ 0.5 to 1.0 kg a.i. / ha as pre-emergence for cereal crop is effective. The weeds like striga can be controlled effectively by 2, 4 – D from mechanical measures.
Integrated weed control:
A combination of mechanical and chemical weed control methods are most effective. Studies carried out at Solapur on methods are most effective. Studies carried out at Solapur on Kharif groundnut showed that combination of pre – emergence spray of Propanil @ 3 kg/ha + weeding at 30 days after sowing increased yield of groundnut by 100 per cent. Use of Basaline ! 1 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 30 DAS has also found effective at other locations.
Off season tillage for weed control :
Off season tillage would control the weeds reaching maturity after the harvest of first crop and checking multiplication. It also helps in timely sowing of crop with first shower of rain.