Meaning of Embryo Culture
In angiosperms, embryo represents the beginning of sporophyte. Normally, the fertilized egg or zygote undergoes embryogenesis in the post fertilization stage within the ovule and thus embryo is formed inside the seed. The typical seed embryo is a bipolar structure consisting of contrasting meristem at each pole- the primordial shoot or the plumule and the primordial root or radicle and one or two lateral appendages, the cotyledons. The mature embryo, therefore, possesses the basic organization of the adult plant. During seed germination a plant is produced through progressive and orderly changes in embryo. Like many other plant organs, embryo can be used as explant and cultured aseptically in the test tube containing medium.
The embryo of different developmental stages, formed within the female gametophyte through sexual process, can be isolated aseptically from the bulk of maternal tissues of ovule, seed or capsule and cultured in vitro under aseptic and controlled physical in the glass vials containing solid or liquid nutrient medium to grow directly into plantlet.