Methods of Micro-propagation
1. Meristem Culture:
In Meristem culture the Meristem and a few subtending leaf primordial are placed into a suitable growing media. Art elongated rooted platelet is produced after some weeks is transferred to soil when it has attained a considerable height. A disease free plant can be produced by this method. Experimental results also suggest that this technique can be successfully utilized for rapid multiplication of various herbaceous plants.
2. Callus Culture:
A callus is mass of undifferentiated parenchymatous cells. When a living plant tissue is paced tissue is placed in an artificial growing medium with other conditions favorable, callus is formed. The growth of callus varies with the homogenous levels of auxin and Cyotkininn and can be manipulated by endogenous supply of these growth regulators in the culture medium. The callus growth and its organogenesis or embryogenesis can be referred into three different stages.
Stages – I: Rapid production of callus after placing the explants in culture medium
Stage – II: The callus is transferred to other medium containing growth regulators for the induction of adventitious organs.
Stage – III: The new plantlet is then exposed gradually to the environmental condition.
3. Callus Culture:
A cell sustention culture refers to cells and or groups of cells dispersed and growing in an aerated liquid culture medium (Street, 1997, Thorpe1981) is placed in a liquid medium and shaken vigorously and balanced dose of hormones. Suezawa et al ( 1988) reported Cyotkininn induced adventitious buds in kiwi fruit in a suspension culture sub- culture for about a week.
4. Embryo Culture:
In embryo culture, the embryo is excised and placed into a culture medium with proper nutrient in aseptic condition. To obtain a quick and optimum growth has growth into a platelets, it is transferred to soil. It is particularly important for the production of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids and to overcome the embryo abortion.
5. Protoplast Culture:
In embryo culture, the plant cell can be isolated with the help of wall degrading enzymes and growth in a suitable culture medium in a controlled condition for regeneration of plantlets. Under suitable condition suitable condition the the protoplast develop a cell wall followed by an increase in cell division and differention and grow into a new plant. The protoplast are fist culture in liquid medium at 25 to 28 C with a light intensity of 100 to 500 lux or in dark and after undergoing substantial cell division, they are transferred into solid medium congenial or morphogenesis in many horticultural crops response well to protoplast culture.