Minimum Or Optimum Or Reduced Tillage
It denotes the reduction of number of operation by planting directly after harrowing without any other intervening cultivation which are usually carried out to give a fine seed bed. Or
Minimum tillage is a method aimed at reducing tillage to the minimum necessary for ensuring a good seed bed rapid germination satisfactory stand and favorable growing condition.
1. Reducing energy input and labour required.
2. Conserving soil moisture and reducing erosion.
3. Increase organic carbon, improve structure of soil, increase hydraulic conductivity of soil, increase infiltration of water.
4. Providing optimum seedbed rather than homogenizing the entire soil surface.
5. Keeping the field compaction to minimum.
Minimum tillage made practicable and economical because of:
1. Development of good equipments for combined tillage & sowing operations.
2. Enormous progress in chemical weed control which has reduced unnecessary many other tillage operations.
3. Minimum tillage frequently gives as good as or even better yields than conventional tillage methods.
Advantages of minimum tillage:-
1. Increases organic carbon.
2. Improves soil structure
3. Increases hydraulic conductivity of soil.
4. Increases infiltration of soil.
5. Reduce soil compaction.
More advantages in coarse & medium soils than heavy soils.
Disadvantage of minimum tillage:-
1. Seed growth / intensity is increased
2. Less decomposition of organic manures & release of nitrogen
3. Less germination of crop seeds.
Minimum tillage can be practiced by different Methods:-
A) Ploughing planting: – In this method only a single trip over field is required. The tractor pulls a plough & planter simultaneously. The seed row is centered on the furrow slice. The area between the rows remains ploughed & weeds do not germinate easily.
This involves in less cost in seed – bed preparation and yields remain some to that of conventional tillage. The disadvantage in this method is that planting is slowed down & sowing is delayed beyond the optimum time.
B) Till planting :- (Special Till planter):- It prepares seed – bed & sows two rows in one operation. The seed – bed is prepared by an implement equipped with a narrow & deep penetrating sweep a wider & shallower sweep and selection of rotary her. The strip between the rows neither is nor disturbed.
C) Wheel track planting: – The field is ploughed as usual. The seedbed a prepared by wheels of the factor. The soil between rows remain rough & loose & absorb better moisture reduces runoff. Weeds seeds he dormant in loose soil until rainfall.
Save 40% villager cost ploughing + planting of seed shout be done at one time to avoid drying of upper soil surface.