Natural Regeneration of Forest

Natural Regeneration of Forest

Regeneration from seed or vegetative parts may observe in Natural Regeneration. Reforestation of a stand by Natural seedlings
1) Natural Regeneration from Seed: Successful natural regeneration from seed depends upon Seed production, Seed dissemination, Seed germination, Establishment and seedlings.

a) Seed Production: Seeds are cultured ovules, which contain the embryo. An embryo is a miniature plant consisting of seed leaves (cotyledons) attached to rudimentary stem (hypocotyl) with a growing tip (Plumule) and a root tip (radicle) at the other end. Seed production depends upon various factors such a species, age of tree, site, weather conditions, season of maturity, alternate bearing, attack of pests and diseases and birds.

b) Seed Dissemination: For the continued existence of a species, it is necessary that seeds are carried away from the parent plant, because seeds germinating immediately below the parent tree commonly do not get established. Seed dissemination gives young seedlings a better chance of survival for they are saved to a large extend from competition with the parent plant. The means of dispersal adopted by the seeds of different species vary widely. The four important agencies by which seed dispersal is secured are i) Wind, ii) Water, iii) Animals, iv) Explosive mechanism or ejection mechanism in fruit itself.

c) Seed Germination: Germination of seed depends upon several internal and external factors such as Permeability of seed coat, Availability of moisture in seed, Oxygen, Nature of embryo (dormancy), Temperature, Moisture in soil, Oxygen and light. Besides this some factors,

1) Age of Tree,
2) Flowering Phase,
3) Sound or health of seed condition,
4) Coppice origin trees,
5) Size of seed,
6) Plant per cent,
7) Type of dissemination,
8) Soil type / nutrition,
9) Pest and disease,
10) Non insect pests.
d) Seedlings Establishment: Successful establishment of newly germinated seedlings in sufficient number as a member of forest crop is undoubtedly, the weakest link in the whole chain of process (a to c) which make up the regeneration of forest crops.

The Factors Responsible, for Seedlings Establishment are as:

1)Climate: Light / moisture rainfall / temperature / frost
2) Edaphic – Soil / nutrient / aeration / texture / structure.

II) Natural Regeneration by Coppice and Root Suckers: Coppice : Stool shoots generally arise from the adventitious buds formed between the wood and the bark of the stump and are comparatively short lived than those produced by dormant buds. These shoots are called coppice shoots.

Classification of Coppice Regeneration:

1) Seedlings Coppice
2) Stool Coppice and
3) Root collar Shoots
4) Pollard Shoots
Natural Regeneration by Root Suckers:
Shoots arises from the roots, may occur naturally or artificially.

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