Natural Resources – Forestry Resources
The word forest is derived from Latin word “Foris” means “out of doors” and etymologically, “It is a large uncultivated tract of land converted with trees and under Wood.” Technically forest means an area set aside or maintained under vegetation for any indirect benefit viz; climatic & protective environment or production of wood and non-wood products. In the legal sense a forest can be defined as an area of land notified to be a forest under a forest law.
Definitions of Forestry:
The theory and practical all that constitutes the creation, conservation and scientific management of forest and the utilization of their resources – Govt. of India.
All lands bearing vegetative association dominated by trees of any size capable of producing wood or other forest products or exerting influence on the climate or water regime or providing shelter for live stock and wild life – F.A.O. (Food and agricultural organization)
A plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation usually with closed canopy – British common Wealth Forest Literature.
Thus in general, it is an area maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefit which it provides e.g. climatic and protective. Forest is a plant formation consisting of trees growing together and forming of foliage that largely shades the ground
Advantages of forest:
The advantages derived from forests may he grouped under two heads viz. (a) Direct advantages and (b) Indirect advantages
(a) Direct Advantages:
1) Valuable Wood: Forests provide both hard and soft wood eg. Teak, Sisam, Gurjan, Sal etc. are the hard wood while sprace, fir, cedar, Belsam, Deoda, pine trees are the soft wood. Wood is required for many purposes and this requirement is fulfilled due to the existence of forestry.
2) Minor Product: Some minor products like bamboo, cane, gums, resins, lac, kathya, etc are received from forest. These products are valuable in day to day life and for exporting.
3) Fruits and Vegetables: Fruits and vegetables having better nutritional value also receive from forest e.g. Mango, Ber, Khirni, Khajur, Jamun etc.
4) Medicinal Herbs: Forests are rich in medicinal herbs and drugs like belladona, huxvomica, mentha, jumiper etc.
5) Raw material for Industrial Use: The saw mills, plywood factories, hard board factories, furniture production, furniture industries, paper mills, varnishes etc are absolutely depend upon forest. Thus forest supports number of industries by providing valuable row materials.
6) Foreign Exchange: Forest can earn foreign exchange through export of forest products.
7) Wild Life: Forests provide natural habitat to many wild animals. Forest is home of wild life.
8) Abode for Tribes: Many tribal communities are living in forest. Forest is dwelling house for tribal.
9) Employment: Forests provide direct and indirect employment to the people.
10) Source of revenue: Govt. can earn sizeable revenue from forest.
(b) Indirect Advantages:
1) Forest influence climate: Many climatic elements are influenced by forests. For example temperature and radiation, wind Velocity, humidity, precipitation etc. Due to existence of forest air temp can become moderate obstacles for wind reduces wind velocity. Similarly it is useful for more precipitation.
2) Influence on soil condition: Forests have a marked influence on the different physical and chemical properties of soil. Due to vegetation decomposition of organic material and formation of has is possible.
3) Forest control floods: Floods can be controlled by following ways.
By with – holding rain water from reaching the soil surface (interception).
By increasing infiltration capacity of the Soil.
By increasing under ground run off and decreasing surface run-off.
By improving soil characteristics for building underground water reservoir.
Consuming large amount of moistu1e by evaporation and transpiration.
4) Forests check the soil erosion: An important role is played by forests as they check soil erosion both from water and wind.
5) Influence of forests on health of human being: Noise, air pollution is general practice in urban area. Forests can cheek air pollution and provide many nutritious products to human being. Thus it promotes and protects the health of man.
6) Recreation: Now days due to industrialization and tremendous urbanization people prefer to go to forests a change.
7) Forest serve as a strong line of defense: Forest serve as a strong line of defense and protection against attacks of enemies.