Organisation Associated with Germplasm
Organisation Associated with Germplasm
There are two types of organisation, viz International and National which are associated with germplasm, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Rome, Italy coordinated at global level. Various International Crop Research Institutes deals with germplasm of concerned crops. In India, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi deals with various aspects of germplasm of agricultural and horticultural crops. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun deals with Germplasm with germplasm of forest species and Botanical Survey of India. Calcutta deals with germplasm of remaining plant species. The role of IPGRI and NBPGR is briefly discussed as follows.
IPGRI (OlD IBPGR):
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) is an autonomous international scientific organisation. The functioning of IPGRI and other International Research Institutes is supported and supervised by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). CGIAR was constituted in 1972 the joint efforts of food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the World Bank and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to establish International Research Institutes and asses their progress. IPGRI was established by CGIAR in 1994 and it is suited in Rome, Italy at the food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. The main function of IPGRI is to conduct research and to promote an International Network of Plant genetic resources activity to ensure the collection, conservation, evaluation, documentation and utilization of plant germplasm. IPGRI also helps in global collection and exchange of plant genetic resources. IPGRI has constituted crop germplasm advisory committees to help in collection, conservation, evaluation, documentation and utilization of crop germplasm. Thus IPGRI promotes and coordinated the global collection and conservation programmes of Plant Genetic Resources. Its predecessor till December 1993 was International board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) which was established. (1974).
National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources was established by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1976 in New Delhi. In India, introduction started in 1946 at IARI. New Delhi in the division of Botany. In 1961 a separate division of Plant Introduction was established under the leadership of Dr. H.B. Singh who made remarkable contribution in the field of plant Introduction in India. He made huge collections of germplasm of various crop species and systematized the work. In 1976, the division of plant Introduction was elevated to the status of independent agency known as NBPGR.
The basis function of NBPGR is to conduct research and promote collection, conservation, evaluation, documentation and utilization of crop genetic resources in India. NBPGR is assigned by various crop research institutes in the collection, conservation, evaluation and documentation of crop genetic resources. The main function of NBPGR is briefly presented below:
1. NBPGR is the sole agency in India for Import and export of plant genetic resources. Thus it helps in exchange of germplasm.
2. It promotes, national genetic resources activities, viz collection, conservation, evaluation, documentation and utilization of crop plants, and coordinates in all these activities.
3. NBPGR has five stations which are located at 1) Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 2) Jodhpur, Rajasthan, 3) Akola, Maharashtra, 4) Kanya Kumari, Kerala, and 5) Shillong, Meghalaya. Collections of various crops are evaluated by these centres.
4. NBPGR also organise short term training courses on collection, conservation, evaluation, documentation, and utilization of crop genetic resources.
5. National and International exploration and collection trips are also organised by NBPGR, National collection trips are organised in collaboration with the help concerned Crop Research Institutes and International trips are arranged with the help of IPGR/FAO.
6. NBPGR provides guidance about development of cold storage facilities for medium and short term conservation of germplasm.
7. NBPGR also takes decision about setting up of gene sanctuaries for endangered crop species.