Other Methods of Training in Fruit Crops
1. Caldwell System of Training:
The branches of the plant are bent and pegged to the ground. This made the plant to come to bearing early and yield better. No pruning involves in this method or training. E.g. erects varieties of guava.
2. Fan System:
This method of training is suitable for well side planting in home gardens. A fan shaped frame is developed by allowing the branches to grow in only on plants paralleled to the wall.
3. Corden System:
A single arm is allowed to develop from the trunk which will be trained along a stretched wire towards one side, or the main truck itself may be bent on the wire at a suitable height.e.g Grape.
4. Kniffin System:
a) Two arm Kniffin System:
Two arms are allowed on the main stem at a height of 5-6 feet and they are trained on the wire on either side. E.g. Grape.
b) Four Arm Kniffin System:
Hence there will four arms, two each on either side of the trunk. The first part of arms at a height of 3- 4 feet and the seconds 5 – 6 feet. e g. Grape.
5. Overhead Trellis or Telephone System:
The wires will be fixed horizontal on some polls just telephone wires. The plant will be trained on to the wire s with a suitable frame work .e. g Grape and ornamental creepers.
6. Pendal or Bower or Arbuot system:
A Pendal will be erected with the help of pillers and wires and the plant will be trained on the Pendal with suitable frame work. E.g. Grape, ornamental creepers.
7. Singly Stake or Umbrellas System:
The main trunk will be supported by a stake. The trunk is deheaded at a height of 5- 6 feet. The branches which arise on the truck will be hanging freely. E.g. Grape.
In addition to those, there are several new system like spindle bush, dwarf pyramid, csplier etc. and also may modifications of them. The modern system of training is hard to understand and bused on root stock vigor etc.
After the tresses have been trained in particular from the cares should be taken to avoid weak crotches, water shoot, and suckers etc. to maintain the desired frame work of the tree.
I) Week Crotching:
A crotch the common joint of large branches from which some times more than one lateral branches arises formed by the two equal branches arises from a common point is called as ‘ Weak Joint ‘.such joint or crocthes in hing split under the pressure of heavy wind. These wak crorches should be avoided and frame work should be strengthen ended by pruning shortening of lateral branch grows vigorously than pruned one and the crotch thus framed by combination of a long and smaller branches, from a strong union.
II) Water Shoots or Sprouts:
The extra ordinary vigorous vegetative shoot growing from high point on the man trunk or branch in an upright direction at the expenses of the parent branch form which arise is called as ‘water sprout’. They are erect much thicker than normal branches and bear much longer and course leaves. They grow rapidly in one season. They out grow and improvise the neighboring, dropping, the branches. Such shoots to be removed completely if they are not removed properly, they soon close the center of the tree and abstract light. In India all cultivated citrus species and pomegranate are particularly soon to produce water shoots in large number and great vigilance should be kept to remove them as soon as they appear.
Suckers arise from the adventitious buds on the roots of underground parts of the stem of some trees. Guava and pomegranate often produce such suckers on their main truck. They should immediately removed. They also appear in Banana, pine apple around the shoot and they have to be retained or removed according to the method of cultivation followed in these crops.