Package of Practices for Cultivation of Cinnamon
Botanical Name : Cinnamomum verum
Origin and Distribution:
Cinnamon or ‘sweet wood’ is the earliest known spice in India. It, is native of Sri Lanka and Malabar Coast of India. It is grown in the Naga hills of Assam, Coastal hills of Karaataka and Western Ghats. The production is just sufficient to meet the internal demand. A few isolated trees of cinnamon are seen growing in Konkan region of Maharashtra.
1. Bark of cinnamon is used as a spice.
2. It is used m medicinal preparations as a cardiac stimulant and in the manufacture of incenses.
3. It is also used in production of chocolates, candy and perfumes.;
4. Inferior quality of bark and slips are used for preparing cinnamon oil.
5. Leaves of cinnamon also yield oil, main constituent of which is eugenol. The oil possesses stron god our and is used1 far-blending of camphor.
1. The quality of the bark is greatly influenced by soil and ecological factors.
2. Well-drained soil rich in humus content is most suitable.
3. Sandy loam soils liberally incorporated with organic manures are best.
4. Red dark brown soils free from rockj gravel or quartz are also good, for cinnamon cultivation.
1. Cinnamon requires hot and humid climate.
2. Annual precipitation of 150 to 250 cm and average temperature of 27°C are ideal.
3. It can be cultivated upto an elevation of 200 m from the sea level.
4. Prolonged spells of dry’ weather are not conductive for successful growth.
Cinnamon is commonly propagated through seed, though it can be propagated by cuttings and air layers. Under the. West Coast conditions, cinnamon flowers in January and fruits ripen during June-August. The fully ripe fruits are either pieked up from the tree or fallen ones are collected from the ground. Seeds are. removed from fruits, washed free of pulp and sown without much delay, as the seeds have a low viability. The seeds are sown in sand beds or polythene bags contaming a mixture of sand, soil and well – powdered cowdung in a 3:3:1 ratio. The seeds germinate within 10-20 days. Frequent irrigations are required for maintaining adequate moisture level. The seedlings require artificial shading till they become 6 months old.
Pits of 50 cm are dug at a spacing of 3 x 3 m. They are filled with compost and-topsoil before planting. Cinnamon is planted during June-July to take advantage of monsoon for the establishment of seedlings. One-year-seedlings are planted. In each pit, 5 seedlings can be planted. In some cases, the seeds are directly dibbled in pits that are filled with compost and soil. Partial shade in the initial years is advantageous for healthy and rapid growth of plants.
Manuring and Fertilization:
1 st year: 20 g N, 18 g P205, and 25 g K20/seedling.
Three years after planting: 29 kg F.Y.M., 4 kg neem cake, 150 g.N, 75 g P2O5 and 150 gK2Q per plant.
The fertilizers are applied in two doses during first week of September and in March.
Training and Pruning:
When the seedlings become 2-3 years old, the shoot is cut back to a height of 30 cm from ground level to produce side shoots. This is called ‘coppicing’. This is done till the whole tree assumes shape of a low bush with side shoots springing forth profusely. Sometimes, stooling is done by slight mounding of soil to encourage shoots.
Watering of newly planted seedling: is done profusely and periodically. In the first 3-4 years, weeding is done 3-4 times in a year. Subsequently one or two weedings are required. Seedlings grow to a height of 2 m in 7 years.
It varies with type of variety and age.
a. 3-4 year and onwards’ – 62 to 125 kg quills/ha.
b. 10-11 year and onwards – 225 to 300 kg quills/ha.
In addition, about 75 kg of quillings and featherings are obtained. Further, ons ton of leaves which yield 1 to 1.25 kg of oil are obtained per year.