Package of Practices for Growing Chrysantheum (Shevanti)
Botanical Name : Chrysanthemum spp.
Family : Composttae
Soil and Climates:
Chrysanthemum is herbaceous perennial plant having soft and succulent stem. It produces fibrous root system hence it requires well drained soil. Water logged or ill drained soil may cause adverse effect on plant growth. pH of soil
should be between 6.5 to 7.0.
Chrysanthemum is a short day plant. For its vegetative growth it requires long Jay with bright sunlight and high temperature ranging from 20 to 27 °C. For bud formation and flowering it requires short day and low temperature ranging from 10 to 27 ‘C. During growing period if the atmospheric humidity remains 70 to 90 per cent, it helps in vigorous vegetative growth of plant.
Chrysanthemum is propagated by two methods:
i) Root suckers and
ii) Terminal stem cutting.
Propagation by cutting is preferred over suckers because cutting produces the neat and sturdy plant whereas the plant raised through suckers are shaggy and haggard (Wild looking).For commercial crops, it is generally propagated by suckers, while for pot culture it is generally preferred by terminal stem cutting.
i) By Suckers:
After flowering is over, the plants are cut to a height of about 15 to 20 cm from the ground level during January February and ample irrigations and fertilizers are applied for encouragement of root suckers. When these root suckers are 10-15 cm high, they are separated in February. – March and planted in small pots and later on planted in bigger pots.
ii) By Terminal Cuttings:
5 to 7 cm long cuttings are taken from healthy plant from middle to end of June. For enhancing rooting, these cuttings are treated with Copper fungicide to check the fungus and later on treated with plant growth regulators like NAA 25 ppm or Seradex. Then these cuttings are planted in sand in pols or beds and are kept in partial shade. Water is sprayed 4 to 5 times a day. Rooting takes place in 2-3 weeks and then these cuttings are ready for transplanting.
In Maharashtra State generally, the planting of Chrysanthemum is done during April – May and some varieties are planted during August also. April – May plantings start flowers in the month of September- October. While August planted in the month of December.
Preparation of Soil:
Before planting the field should be prepared by. ploughing and harrowing to which 15 to 20 tosnes of FYM be added. Rooted suckers or cuttings are planted on the ridges and furrows at the spacings of 30 Jt 30 cm and 30 x 45 cm irrigated immediately.
Nutritional Requirement per Hectare:
It needs 200 kg N, 200 kg K20 and 200 kg P3O5. lA dose of N and full dose of P and K is given at the time of planting while XA dose of N is given 1 to I ‘A months after planting.
As the planting is done during summer, it is essential to have an adequate irrigation facilities. Water stress during bud formation, flower opening till harvesting will cause adverse effect on the quality of flowers. Excess irrigation result in decaying of root systems.
Usually Chrysanthemum takes 5 to 6 months from planting to flowering and thus flowers are available from October to December. Fully opened flowers are harvested without their stalk (Loose flowers) preferably in the morning. Harvested flowers are packed in bamboo basket and then send to market.
Yield: 10 to 12 tonnes flowers / hectare, 40 to 120 quintals flowers / ha.
Pest and Diseases:
Black aphids suck the juice from the leaves and young stems.
Spray Rogor, 30 EC or Metasystox 25 EC @ 250 ml in 250 litres of water
2) Powdery Mildew:
This disease is caused by fungus. White powdery mass appears on leaves and stems.
Spraying with 0.5 % Karathen (40 EC) is very useful.