Package of Practices for Growing Jasmines
Botanic Name : Jasm inum sam bac (Mogra) – Shrub
Jasmin urn pubescena (Kunda) – Shrub
Jasmimim muliiflorAim (Kunda) – Shrub
Jasmimim auriculatum (Jui) . – Climber
Jasm inum grandiflorum (Jai)’ – Climber
Jasminum officinalae (Chameli) – Climber :
Family : Oleaceae
Jasmine flowers are white, scented and preferred for making Veni. Garland and Floral decoration. These are also used for worship of God and similarly for making atter or essential oil for perfume.
Among the various fragrant species of Jasmines – Mogra has a high commercial value. Mogra has a very short post harvest life and hence ts cultivation is concentrated nearby big cities. Flowers of mogra are available during summer (March – June).
Soil and Climate:
It requires well drained, porous and fertile soil. It clay soil though the vegetative growth is vigorous, flowering is poor. Jasmines can not tolerate water logged soil. It requires hot and dry climate for higher yield. Yield of the flowers is directly related with temperature and dry condition. Under high temperature and high? humidity plant grows vigorously and bushes are less productive.
1. Mogra : Motia, Madanban, Ramban, Ramnnathpurum Gundumulli, Bela, Virupakshi, Rai
2. Jui : Co-1, Mullai, Parimuiii, Large round, Short point
3. Chemali or Jai : Co-1, Thimmapurum, Coimbatore, Pink pin.
4. Kurt da : Kakada
Jasmines are generally propagated by cutting of almost mature wood and also by layers. The best time for propagation is rainy season.
A jasmine plantation remains productive for 10-15 years. So land should be prepared thoroughly by addition of manures. The planting is usually done in rainy season.
Mogra : 75 cm x 1 meter or 1.2 meter x 1.2 meter 2×2 meter
Jai Jui : 1.8 meter x 1.8 meter
Kunda : 1.8 meter x 1.8 meter
Irrigation should be given at an interval of 3-4 days till the establishment of sampling if no rains in rainy season. Afterwards, the jasmines may be irrigated at the interval of 15 days.
Nutrition Requirements :
75-100 cart foads of FYM + 100 kg N : 50 kg P205: 50 kg K20 per ha.
This dose may be split up in 2 doses and accordingly first half dose of NPK be given at the time of pruning bushes during January — February and second at the time of flower bud formation i.e. during March. FYM is added at the time of preparation of land.
Special Cultural Practices:
1. Bahar Treatment:
Bahar treatment or withholding of water or water stress is essential for flowering in jasmines and accordingly withholding of water is done for 40-50 days prior flowering or till the plant shed its leaves and go into dormancy for rest.
Withholding of water is usually done in the month of November December. After sheeding of the leaves, irrigation is started i.e. it will be started from January – February.
Pruning is a regular practice of inducing flowering in Mogra. In Mogra flowers are borne only on new growth and thus, pruning stimulates the new growth secondly is keeps the bushes in manageable size.
For commercial crop, pruning is usually done after 2 years of its planting and followed in the month of January – February. Generally pruning is done 45 to 50 cm from ground level. Light pruning in mogra is advocated during June – July.
Harvesting of Flowers:
Jasminum species start flowering from first year of planting but commercial yield starts after second year.
Jui and Mogra flowers are harvested from March to June while Jai flowers, almost throughout the year.
Mogra is having a very short post harvest life. The unopened-fully developed flowers buds are picked very early in the morning and transported within 2 to 3 hours, to the market. The flowers are sold by retailers in the evening of the same day. It is perhaps mainly due to the short post harvest life of the flowers.
For Gajara and Veni fully developed unopened buds are picked while for extraction of oil fully opened flowers are picked.
Mogra : 8000 – 10,000 kg flowers per ha
50 to 80 quintals flowers /ha
Chameli : 11,000 kg flowers/ha
Jui : 10,000 kg flowers/ha.
Pests and Diseases:
Thrips / leaf webber – Nuvacron 0.1 %
Wilt / leaf spot – Bavistin 0.1 %