Package of Practices for Growing Tuberose
Common Names : Nishigandha, Rajanigandha, Sword Lilly
Botanical name : Polianthes tuberosa
Family : Amaryllidaceae
Importance and Uses:
It is one of the important cut flowers used for vase decoration and bouquets. The flowers stalk is 75 to 100 cm long bearing 10-20 flowers (florets) of white colour. The spikes or tuberose are used as a cut flowers due to its delightful appearance, sweet fragrance and good keeping quality. The individual florets are used for making Veni and Garlands. Besides the floral decoration it is suitable for pots, beds and for extraction of oil.
Soil and Climate:
Medium sandy loam with good drainage is best for production of flowers and bulbs. For luxurious growth of the crop moderate humidity with mild temperature is essential. Very high temperature or frost may damage the crops.
1. Single Flowered- 5 petals per flower.
Flowers single petalled
Calcutta single, Coimbatore single, Bangalore single
2. Semi Double 10 petals per flower
3. Doulje More than 10 petals / flower.
4. Variegated The leaves are variegated i.e. yellow on the margin
5. Variegated single : Rajat (White margin)
6. Variegated double- Dhawal (Golden margin).
Single flowered varieties are more fragrant than double flowered and usually preferred for Gajara and Garlands. While’ doubles are preferably used for Vase decoration.
The tuberose is propagated by bulb having a diameter of 1.5 to 2.0 cm and weight above 30 gms. In single, 1,2.3 or a clump of bulbs are planted per hill. For one year crop, only 3 bulbs should be planted to get better, yields and quality of flowers. For a crop more than one year duration. Only one or two bulb per hill should be planted. In doubles only two should be planted for one year crop.
Selection of Planting Materials:
Tuberose is propagated by bulb A spindle shaped bulb having average diameter of 1.5 to 2.0 cm and weighing 30 gms and above are selected from previous year’s crop. Those bulbs should be healthy and free of pests and diseases.
It has been observed that bulb weight is important factor in tuberose which influences on flowering. When a bulb having weight more than 30 gms are used than flowering started within 40 days after planting while 15 gms required 50 days for flowering. Bulbs with 10 gms weight do not produce flowers even in 200-250 days. Before planting bulb should be treated with 0.1 % Bavistin for 30 minutes.
For commercial crop, planting of bulb is usually done in March-April. For getting the regular supply of flowers, planting of bulbs can also be done during May — June and September — October. Planting is done at the spacing of 30 x 20 cm or 20 x 15 cm by using a bulb of 1:5 to 2.0 cm diameter with average weight of 30-60 gms at a depth of 5-7 cm.
Sees Rate: 5000 – 6000 kg bulb /ha; 1,60,000 bulbs /ha. 2,50,000 bulbs
20 tonnes FYM + 100 kg N + 50 kg P2Os + 50 kg K20.
Full dose of FYM + Potash + Phosphorus along with V* dose of nitrogen is given at the time of planting or as a basal dose, while remaining dose of nitrogen is given in 3 doses i.e. 30 days after planting, 60 days after second dose, and 90 days after 3rf dose.
As the planting is done in summer, it requires adequate moisture supply for the luxurious growth of the plant. After rains, proper frequencies of irrigations should be maintairled to keep the soil moist.
Harvesting of Flowers:
Tuberose flowers are harvested for two purposes i) As a cut flowers for/vase decoration and ii) As a loose flowers for Veni and Garlands.
When the flowers are to be harvested for vase decoration, then spikes are to be cut when the lower most 1-2 florets have opened. Immediately after cutting the spike the base of spikes are immediately placed in a bucket full of water-When the loose flowers are to be harvested, then fully developed but unopened florets, are plucked. Each spike produces 16-20 florets out of this terminal 3-4 pairs of florets are very small and of no use. After the harvesting of flowers, flowers are placed in shade in wet cotton cloth or in a gynny bag cloth after the harvest of flowers the spike should be cut off.
3-4 months after planting tuberose starts flowering. Summer and rainy seasons are the peak period. Bulb once planted gives the commercial yield upto 3 years.6000 to 8000 kg flowers /ha,15,000 kg/ha, 60 to 80 qtls flowers/ha
Pests and Diseases:
Thrips and mites : Nuvacron spray 2 ml/litre.
Fungal diseases : Soil drenching with Brassicol 2 gm/lit