Package Of Practices Of Crops Under Rainfed Conditions
Choice Of Crop And Varieties For Rainfed Agriculture
Dryland constitutes about 75 per cent of cultivatable lands in the country. The contribute about 42 per cent of off grains, almost all the coarse grains and 75 percent pulses and oilseeds. More than 90% of sorghum, Pearl millet, groundnut and pulses are grown in arid and semi arid areas.
At present, the cultivable area under Dryland agriculture in the state is 87% and only 13% area is under irrigation. After harvesting all available water resources, it is possible to bring it to 30%. It means 70% of the cultivable area will remain as Rainfed in the state. Under this situation the state will have to depend upon for its major share of food production on Dryland. However, the Dryland agriculture suffers from two problems viz. low productivity and high in stability.
The reasons for low productivity in Rainfed area are:
1. Lack of moisture conservation practices.
2. Low rate of fertilizer use.
3. Lack of timely farm operations.
4. Improper crop planning as per land capability.
5. Inadequate efforts to increase water resources.
6. Unpredictable rainfall situations.
7.Lack of improved Technology
The adoption of improved Dryland technology will be the only answer to mitigate above situation. Considerable research efforts are being made in the state to develop the improved the improved Dryland technologies since early seventies which will help to improve the crop production in Rainfed agriculture.
The important improved Dryland technologies are given below:
1. Selection of efficient crops and their varieties:
2. Crop planning as per length of cropping season:
3. Developing suitable varieties for dry lands.
4. Seeding time for Dryland crops
5. Timely seeding for pest avoidance
6. Planting pattern and plant densities
8. Fertilizer use in Dryland
9. Weed Management
10. Use of minimal irrigation
11. Crop planning as per land use capability
12. Crop planning for aberrant weather situation in dry lands
13. mid – season correction practices
14. Soil and water conservation practices