Planning And Implementation Of Watershed Management Programme
The planning and implementation of watershed management programme should be carried out in systematic way with the active participation of farmers including constitution of co-operative watershed management societies. During implementation of the programme, following guidelines may followed.
1. The implementation programme should start from the ridge line of the watershed to the valley, not on piecemeal basis in isolated patches.
2. Development of arable and non – arable lands should be done together.
3. Forest, pasture, cultivable land and water lands should be treated as inter linked units of hydrological entity. The condition of all lands has to be improved to meet the demands of increasing man and animal population.
4. Essentially, all developmental activities are to be carried out on watershed basis. Whole watershed area needs to be covered, may be in planned phases.
The following points to be considered while preparing the master plan for watershed development.
Out line of master plan of Watershed:
For preparing of master plans of the watershed, specific formats are prescribed by the Central Research Institute for Dry Land Agril., Hyderabad. The out line for preparation of master plan for development of dry lands on watershed basis are given below –
I. Introductions: General description regarding aims & objectives of the watershed approach for Dry land Agril.
II. Characteristics of watershed:
1. General information i.e. the general description of its characteristics name of watershed, general special problems on use of natural resources like soil & water.
2. Climate: Annual of monthly rainfall in mm & no. of rainy days from the harvest, rainguage station, special problems of watershed.
3. Soils: Geological features: type of soils, series, physical & chemical properties; soil survey map & report.
4. Natural vegetation: General description of the type of vegetation & the level of management.
5. Present land use & capability of classification: Detailed land capability classification under each category. Area under each class of soil Existing cropping pattern through systematic survey of the farm.
6. Socio – Economic condition: Existing land holding pattern, irrigation facilities; available draft power; labour; credit & other facilities like marketing, transport, roads etc.
III. Analysis of Problems & Potentials:
1. Existing level of crop management & reasons for non adoption of technology.
2. Existing level of Erosion control measures & suggested control measures.
3. Present level of main water use efficiency & methods of insitu moisture conservation.
IV. Improved Technology:
1. Proposed land use: Management of practices of the alternate land use system.
2. Crop management: Description of the main features of the new technology i.e. use of different production inputs, proposals to tackle aberrant weather situations.
3. Soil & water management: Specification of the engineering measures e.g. diversion drains, bunds, terracing etc.
4. Pasture management: Silvi – Horti – Agril. Pasture development details.
V. Schedule of operation: Defining the sequence of operation keeping in view with weather & available resources.
VI. Cost benefit Analysis & budget :
a) Cost benefit ratio for each component.
b) Description of subsidy pattern under each item of work.
c) Year wise – budget.
d) Likely overall benefits from the plan.
VI. Supplemental information:
a) Soil survey reports.
b) Summery of formers survey report.
c) Design; Drawing & details of major structure.
d) Agencies involved & their responsibilities.
a) Soil survey reports
b) Land capability classification
c) Existing land use
d) Existing measures for erosion control, rills, gullies etc.
e) Proposed land use
f) Contour map
g) Proposed soil & water management measures.
IX) Provision of staff, farmers training, monitoring & evaluation of the project should also be made in the master plan.
X) Involvement of farmers in planning & executions of programme through formation of co-operative watershed development societies at village levels be considered.