Preparation of Layout for Fruit Production Unit
Before undertaking the actual platting of fruit trees, it is advisable to prepare a sketch pan on a piece of paper which will enable the grower to provide for not only the most economic orchard management but also the economic layout and location of roads, drains, irrigation channels, hedge, wind breaks, etc. the following points should be shown on the plan.
1. Roots and Building:
The building such as owner’s residence sheds and layout’s quarters should be located fairly close to a public road or in the center of site or near the water source in the site.
The area necessary for construction should be left unplanted even if the construction is delayed. Straight roads of 8 feet t 10 feet width should be construction at right angles to each other, for easy movement of carries any garden machinery. The roads should be given gentle slopes on their either site to drain off excess of rain water.
2. Position of Well:
If the source of irrigation is going to be a well, it should be dug before planting as the tree require water as soon as they are planted. The well should be located as far as possible at the highest point to facilitate easy distribution of water by gravity at least cost.
To prevent destruction of the trees from stray cattle and also protect the orchard from thieves, it is necessary to provide some kind of fencing on all sides of the garden and this should be done preferably before plating the fruit trees. Fencing may be prepared using thorny bushes but they are not satisfactory since they required frequent repairs and replacement. Barbed wire fencing is very good but its initial cost is rather very high. The best protection can be bad by building up a live fence. Live fence needs no investment except proper watering and maintenance during the summer months. Some of the thorny plants such as prosophus julifora; Chillan, etc make a very good live fence.
4. Wind Breaks:
Exposures of orchard to wind increase the losses of moisture both by and increasing the transportation and surface evaporation. The high winds also cause damage to the fruit trees by blowing off branches and fruit. The fruit set is also reduced. Since the winds causes the stigmatic secretion to go and this results in failure of proper fertilization.
In order to reduce such damage due to winds, a wind break is necessary for every orchard. Wind breaks are the rows of tall trees planted close together. The height is more important then closeness. The tress commonly used as wind breaks Eucalyptus casurina jambul and seedlings, mango trees for crops with low height like banana or papaya, wind breaks of shevary.( sysabenia ogyptica) is grown on southern and western sides of the plantation.
The wind breaks trees sometimes may com pare with orchard trees for soil, water and food. To prevent this competition, a trench maybe dug about 3 t 4 feet deep and about 10 feet away from the row of wind break trees and all of their roots in the trench should be cut away.
In addition to above, the following points should be considered while preparing the plan of the orchard.
5. Shorter fruit trees may be planted in the fore ground and taller tress further away. Such gradation facilities better watching.
6. Irrigation fruit trees should be planted to close to the source of water while the rained ones away from it.
7. Fruit that ripen at the same time should be planted in a condition compact block.
8. High fertile area of the orchard should be devoted to more playing fruit crops