Principal and Difference Between Sustainable Agriculture
There is an urgent need to develop farming techniques, which are sustainable from environment and socioeconomic, points of view. In 1980s, we Jackson of the Land Institute in Salina using the term the sustainable agriculture to describe an alternative system of agriculture vased upon resources conservation and quality of rural life. The sustainable agriculture movement started in 1980.
Sustainable agriculture emphasizes the conserving of his own resources. For a farm to be sustainable, it must produce adequate amounts of high quality foods, be environments safe and where appropriate, be profitable, sustainable farms minimizes their purchased inputs ( fertilizers, energy and equipment ) and rely, as much as possible on the renewable resources of the farms itself.
A group of Canadian scientists have defined sustainable agriculture as a philosophy and system of farming with it roots in a set of values that reflect a state of empowerment of a awareness of ecological and social realities and of one’s ability to take effective action which involves design and management procedures that work with natural processes to conserve all resources, promote agro- ecosystem resilience and self regulation and minimize waste and environmental impact, while maintaining or improving farm profitability.
Sustainable agriculture is a balanced is a balanced management system of renewable resources including soil. Wildlife forest crops, fish, livestock, palnt genetic resources and ecosystems without degradation and to provide food, livelihood for current and future generation maintaining or improve productive and ecosystem service of these resources.
Sustainable agriculture system has to be economically viable both in the short and long term perspective. Natural resources not only provide food, fiber, fuel and fodder but also perform ecosystem service such as detoxification of noxious chemicals within soils, purification of nutrient and control weedsssss, pest and diseases through biological and cultural methods.
Sustainable agriculture is also a known as eco-farming or natural farming or perm culture. It is known as eco- farming or organic farming or natural farming. It is known as eco- famiming as ecological balance is given important. It is also called organic farming, as organic matter in the main source for nutrient management. But some scientists consider that it is a miscoconcept to think that sustainable agriculture is farming without chemical inputs. It is considered by some as integrated, low input and highly productive farming system.
Dr. M.S Swaminathn started in his write up in the Hindu Survey of Indian agriculture 1989 that ecological sustainability involves that addition of a time dimension of infinity in development programmes based on the utilization of natural resources. Sustainable development is the 20 th century passes port to a future of promise for all nation. It is a passport that must be issued to all of humankind. The future of the most important solar energy harvesting enterprise.
Principal of Sustainable Agriculture:
1. No fight with nature, but co-operation with them.
2. Living soil- maintain the soil healthy.
3. Lessen the use of outside and distant Resources.
4. Diversity and adjustment: The diversity of all plants and animal should be preserved and increased.
5. Durable livelihood: durable lemmatization about how much resource can be utilized by man in an area.
6. Self- Dependence: The new knowledge and technology should be increase self- confidence, which help for effecting planning of resources.
Component of Sustainable System:
A wide chain of critical environment threats is posing challenges to the mankind all over the world. Some of these thret are degeneration of soil, water, forest and marine resources essential for increasing production of food, fodder, fiber, fuel, timber rtc. Degradation of the natural resources is the main issue threading sustainable developments of agriculture. Causes of resources base degradation: following are the main reasons of derogation of natural resources.Major component of sustainable system (Roel of IFS in sustainable agriculture):
They are as follows:
i) Soil and water conservation to prevent degradation of soil productivity and lengthening crop growing season for optimum crop production.
ii) Efficient use of limited irrigation water: without leading to the problems of oil, salinity, alkalinity and high ground water tables.
iii) Crop rotation to mitigate weeds, diseases and insect problems to increase soil productivity and minimizes soil erosion.
iv) Integrated nutrient management that reduces the need for chemical fertilizer improves the soil health and minimizes environmental pollution by conjunctive use of organics, in organics and bio fertilizer.
v) Integrated pest management that reduce the need for agro- chemical by crop rotation, weather monitoring, use of resistant cultivators, planning time and biological pest control.
vi) Management systems to control weeds by preventive measure, tillage, timely Intercultivation and crop rotation to improve plant health.
All such ecologically sound practices require more information, trained labour and management skills per unit production than current input intensive agriculture.
Difference between Sustainable and Modern Agriculture:
Farm yard manures, compost, vermicompost, green manure, bio- fertilizer and crop rotation are used.
Chemical fertilizers are used.
Cultural methods, crop rotation and biological methods are used.
Toxic chemical are used.
High diversity, renewable and biodegradable inputs are used
High productivity and low diverse chemicals are used fragile ecology.
Use of resources
The rate of extraction from forests, fisheries, underground water source other renewable do not exceed the rate of regeneration.
The rate of extraction exceeds threat of regeneration. Falling of trees, deforestation, overgrazing and pollution of water – bodied takes.
Quality of food material
Food material are safe
Food material contain toxic residue.