Ranching and Dry Farming
A ranch differs from other type of crop and livestock farming in that in that the livestock graze the natural vegetation. Ranch land is not utilized for tilling or raising crops. The ranches have no land of their own and make use of the public grazing land. A ranch occupies most of the time of one or more operators.
Ranching is followed in Australia, America, Tibet and certain parts of India.
Farmers in dry land, which receives 750 mm rainfall or even less than that struggle for livelihood. The major farm management problem in these tracts, where crops, which are entirely dependent upon rainfall and the conservation of, soil moisture is needed.
Dry Farming Involves the Adoption of the Following Practices:
a) Timely preparation of the land to a condition in which it is best able to receive and conserve the available moisture.
b) Time and proper inter culturing during growth of the crop.
c) Improving the water holding capacity of the soil by the profitable application of organic manure.
d) Use of such implements as is capable or rapidly breaking of the surface of the soil.
e) Building of fields.
f) Use of optimum seed rates.
g) Thinning of excess plant populations.
h) Mixed cropping.
Environmentally sustainable dry land farming systems emphasis conservation and utilization of natural resources. Agronomic practices of conservation, tillage and mulch farming, rotational cropping, use of legumes and cover crops for improving soil fertility and suppressing weeds and efficient uses of cattle manure are some of the components of sustainable farming system.