Regeneration of Bamboo
Bamboo is belonging to the grass family Graminee. The Bamboo is grown in tropical warm, humid climate in the India, Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Korea and Japan. In India it is grown in Orissa followed by Assam, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
The bamboo’s are having 12-15 stumps arising from underground rhizomes collectively called as clump. There are 125 species of bamboo out of Dendrocalimus strectus (solid bamboo) and Bambusa vulgirius (hollow bamboo) are two important species other are cane bamboo, ornamental bamboo. The bamboo is ‘Poor Mans’ timber used for but making, agricultural implements, paper and pulp, rayon grade pulp, brooms, toys, mats, curtain and ornamental purposes.
Soil and Climate for Bamboo Cultivation:
It require hot humid climate, temperature range 8° – 36°C, average annual rainfall 750mm. It is grown in clay sandy loom soils, for hollow bamboo heavy clay soils which good drainage are preferred.
The seeds are produced by bamboo in three different ways. Some bamboo flowers gregariously after 30-40 years, some bamboo flowers irregular and sporadically and third category flower every year after maturity. The solid bamboo lives 30-45 years and hallows bamboo 32-45 years. The seeds germinate in rainy season and clumps are observed in a natural forest.
Artificial Regeneration (Nursery Technique):
In one kg 40,000-55,000 seeds are observed. Germination is about 60%, viability of seeds is one to three months, however when packed in air tight containers seeds remain viable for one to three years. Seeds are sown on the raised beds by covering with top 5 cm of fine sand. Seeds are sown 8 -10 cm between lines and 1.5cm deep. After 9-12 months keeping 2-3cm stem remaining portion is cut out these seedlings with trimmed roots are, transplanted in polyethylene bag of 20 x 12.5cm size and planting is done after year in, the pits of 45/45/45cm filled up with one part of soil and one part of FYM. The planting is done in the month of June-July. The propagation of bamboo is also done by directly sowing the seeds in the polyethylene bag and planting, after 9-12 months. The bamboo is also propagated by rhizome cutting of 1-1.5 m length planted in the pit, and by the stem cuttings having 2-3 nodes 1 m length.
Harvesting of Bamboo:
Harvesting of the bamboo is done after 4-5 years, the taller bamboos are harvested during the four or fifth years and the younger bamboo’s of one to two years are harvested during next two to three years. On, an average 2000 bamboo’s are harvested from one hector.