Regeneration of Teak Wood
Teak Wood (Tectono grandis):
Tectona grandis is grown in India, Burma, Thiland, Java, Sumatra and Malaya. In Maharastra it is grown in Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Nagpur, Bhandara, Amaravati, Nanded, Vardha, Yawatmal, Dhule, Nasik and Raigadh.
Use of Teak Wood:
It is called as King of timber because it is durable timber not attacked by insects, termites etc. it is also resistant to water therefore mostly used in the building construction, railway carriages, and railway sleepers, agricultural implements, toys, etc. The teak wood has the annual rings on the wood when cut which give different designs and good appearance to the furniture it is soft and very good for carpentry work.
Soil and Water requirement of Teak Wood:
The Teak Wood is grown in deep clams loam soils, well drained having 6-8 pH. The soils rich in phosphorus and calcium is good for the teak wood, it is grown under 750-5000 mm of rainfall out of which average 1250-3000 range is very good for the growth of Tectona grandis. The mean annual temperature 10-38°C. It is grown up to 1200 m from mean sea level however 600m from MSL is good for growth of teak. Well distributed warm humid climate is good for growth. It is sun loving and bright sun shine in required. Its growth is poor in shade condition. It is susceptible to drought, frost, cyclones and hail storm.
Regeneration of Teak Wood:
The natural regeneration is from seed which fall under the trees remain buried in the soil germinate on the onset of mansoon and natural teak forests are created.
The teak wood artificially is propagated by stem. The stumps are the root and shoot cuttings. One kg of teak wood contains 800-3000 seeds. The seeds are given the special seed-treatment before germination because the seeds are, having hard coated. The seeds are spread on the hard cement coated floors and they are covered with repeatedly ever week for two to three months. The seeds are then sown in the nursery beds of 1.2m/12m/30cm beds in between 10 – 15cm distance in kept the seeds are sown at 1.5cm depth about 50% germination is observed. To check the termites and leaf eating caterpillar 10% two kg Methyl Parathion per 200 lit of water is sprayed. When the seedlings are 9-10 months old, the stumps are prepared keeping 1.5 – 2cm shoot and 20-25cm root the stumps are planted in the prepared area-in the crowbar holes. The soil is pressed tightly around the stumps the holes are prepared in slightly slanting position and then planted in the month of June – July at the spacing 2 x 2m or 1.5 x 1.5 m.
Teak is also planted by preparing seedlings directly in the polyethylene bags of 15 x 25 cm size. Three to four seeds are sown in the month of October and then planting is done in following mansoon at 2 x 2m or 1.5 x 1.5 m distance.
After Care in Regeneration of Teak Wood:
The weeding is done during the first year 2-3 times. During second and third year remove basal leaves, at the bottom keeping only 6-7 leaves on the top. For control of leaf and bark eating caterpillar D.D.T. and Endosulfan are sprayed, 20 gms of NPK per plant is applied every year in the month of June-July.
Harvesting of Teak Wood:
2500 trees are planted out of which 80% survives. Out of 2000 trees 1000 trees are harvested after 10 years duration from planting, 500 after 20 years and remaining 500-may be harvested in 30-50 years. Average tree yield is 0-40 cubic feet of timber yield.