Reorganized Extension System (T & V System)

Reorganized Extension System (T & V System)

This system was introduced in 1974 with the World Bank assistance.  It was presumed that transfer of technology trough the ‘contact farmers’ shall benefit all farmers.  This system was introduced in Rajastan Canal area in Rajasthan and Chambal Command area in Madhya Pradesh.  The system has since been extended to 13 states and 4 more are in pipe-line.  This system will be further extended in the remaining states of the country by 1985.  In two and a half decades, T & V became the dominant method of restructuring the extension services in over sixty countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.  The system tries to achieve changes in production technologies used by the majority of farmers through assistance form well trained extension agents who have close links with agricultural research and supported by supply, service and marketing facilities.


The working objectives of the system as follows:

  1. Coordinating research, training and extension activities effectively.
  2. To make research more effective by catering to the local needs and situation.
  3. To evolve an intensive training program on a systematic basic for extension workers and farmers and to ensure effective supervision and technical support.

T & V was regarded as an improved management system of agricultural extension and had the following key features-

1.   Professionalism:

Each extension agent is fully and continuously trained to handle one’s particular      responsibilities  

2.   Single Line of Command:

The extension service must be under a single line of technical and administrative command within the Ministry/ Department of agriculture.

3.   Concentration of Effort:

All extension staff works only on agricultural extension.  They are not responsible for any other activity not directly related to extension. In training session, attention is concentrated on important major points.

4.   Time-bound Work:

Messages and skills are taught to farmers in a regular and timely fashion.  The village Extension worker (VEW) must visit the farmers regularly on a fixed day, usually once each fortnight.  All other extension staff must make timely and regular visit to the field.

Recommendations for a specific area and for particular farming conditions for each two – fortnight periods are discussed and learned by Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) at regular monthly workshops, the recommendations are then presented to VEWs and Agricultural Extension Officers (AEOs) at the next two fortnightly training sessions.

5.   Field and Farmer Orientation:

The contact with the farmers must be on a regular’s basis, on a schedule known to farmers, and with a large number of farmers representing all major farming and socio-economic types.

6.   Regular and Continuous Training:

Regular and continuous training of extension staff is require both the teach, and discuss with them, and the prepare specific production recommendations required by farmer for the coming fortnights and the upgrade and update their professional skills

7.   Linkages with Research:

Problems faced by farmers that cannot be resolved by extension agents are passed on to researchers of either an immediate solution of investigation.  Seasonal and monthly workshops, joint field visit, training of extension are some of the means by which linkages with research and maintained.

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