Rural Local Government (Gram Panchayat)
Under the three tier system of democratic decentralization of Panchayat Raj Gram Panchayat function at village level. It is the primary unit of local self government. Now the Panchayats are the agency for planning and executing the local development programme.
What is Gram Panchayat:
A Gram Panchayat is a local self government which is responsible mainly for administration of the village and which also looks after the welfare of the people in the village.
Important of Gram Panchayat:
1. It helps to train the villagers in the art of governing themselves.
2. It trains and develops local leadership.
3. It helps in securing participation of local people.
4. It trains rural people in democratic procedure.
I) Procedure for Forming Gram-Panchayat:
Every village having a population of 500 and more must have a grampanchayat. In smaller villages a group grampanchayat for two or three villages is established. The size of population covered by each panchayat varies from state to state.
The number of members of a grampanchayat depends on the size of population. It varies from 7 to 17. Members of grampanchayat are elected by villagers for a period of five years. An adult with an age of 21 years and above is eligible for contesting the election and for voting in the same. One of the members is elected as Sarpanch and another Deputy Sarpanch.
Grampanchayat has a paid secretary (Gramsevak) who is appointed by Zilla Parishad.
1. The Chief executive officer makes the inquiry and collects the information in prescribed form and put in the meeting of standing committee.
2. After approval of standing committee the proposal is send to commissioner.
3. The commissioner passes the order to district collector to form separate Grampanchayat.
4. After declaration of separate Grampanchayat, state eleven Commissioner has to conduct the election of new Grampanchayat within a period of six months.
6. After election the functioning of the Grampanchayat is started.
II) Election of Gram-Panchayat:
1. Elections of the grampanchayat are conducted by stats election Commissioner through District Collector and Tahasildar.
2. The elections are conducted for every five years. The date of 1st meeting of elected members is taken as a date of starting of the functioning of that grampanchayat.
3. Tahasildar announces the date of election.
4. The number of members is fixed according to population of village.
Up to 1500
1501 to 3000
3000 to 4500
4500 to 6000
6000 to 7500
1. The wants are prepared considering number of members.
2. List of voters is published and the election is conducted as general selection.
3. All the villagers having age more than 18 years are the voters.
4. The villagers having age more than 21 years is eligible for contesting the election if he fulfills the other requirements.
III) Reservation of Sets of Members of Gram-Panchayat:
1. 30% seats are reserved for women.
2. 27% seats are reserved for backward class. The election Commissioner fix the number of seats reserved for other Backward Class (OBC), Nomadic tribes (NT) and Vimukth Jamati (VJ).
IV) Election of Sarpanch and Deputy Sarpanch:
1. Election of Sarpanch and Deputy Sarpanch is conducted in 1st meeting of Panchayat under Chairmanship or representative of Collection. The 1st meeting is called as early as possible after election.
2. The notice of election is given to elected members at least before three days.
3. The names in prescribed form are accepted form are accepted before 2 hours of meeting from elected members.
4. The election is conducted by open election method but if any member desires, the secrit ballel method is used.
Reservation for the Post of Sarpanch:
1. 1/3 of the seats are reserved for women.
2. 27% of the total seats of Sarpanch from the districts are reserved for backward class members.
3. 27% seats are reserved for other backward class (OBC) members.
4. In proportion of population of NT and VJ to total population the seats of the Sarpanch are reserved.
The reservation of seats is fixed by Collector by draw method.
V) Working of Grampanchayat:
1. The meeting of members is arranged once in a month to take decisions about different activities of panchayat.
2. Gram Sabha is arranged twice in a year. The first meeting is arranged in the month of April or May and the second Gram-Sabha is arranged in the month of November. If required more meeting can be arranged. All the voters are invited for meeting. In the first meeting progress report, account and audit report of last year and in 2nd meeting budget and activities of the next year are discussed.
VI) Source of Income:
1. Land revenue of village.
2. Collection of various taxes such as house tax, water tax, marriage tax, professional tax, vehicle tax, entertainment tax etc.
3. Income from stray cattle pen (Kondwade) fines and sale of compost.
4. Grants from Zilla Parishad.
5. Annual fair and festival tax.
6. Marketing tax.
1. Supply of water for domestic use.
2. Construction and repairs to public roads, drains, small irrigation bandharas.
3. Maintaining sanitation and public health.
4. Construction, repairing and maintaining public buildings, grazing lands, forest public wells and tanks in good condition.
5. Lighting on roads and public places.
6. Controlling fairs, bazaars (public market) bullets cart stands.
7. Controlling and marinating village cemetery.
8. Taking part in Agricultural development.
9. Maintaining a library and opening elementary school.
10. Providing and maintaining a playground for children.
11. Construction and maintaining public latrines.
12. Watch and ward work.
13. Planting and preservation of trees on the sides of the public roads in the village.
14. Collection of taxes.
15. Providing recreational facilities through establishment of T.V. unit.