Silviculture pertains to the raising, development, care, reproduction and overall management of forest crops.
Definition: If has been defined variously as follows:
- By Toumey and Korstain:
Silviculture is that branch of forestry which deals with the establishment, development, care and reproduction of stands of timber.
- By Champion and Seth:
The terms silviculture, in English refers only to certain aspects of the theory and practices of raising of forests crops.
- By Iffprt (IFR Dehradun)
The art and science of cultivated forests crops. On the other hands, silvics is the study of trees and forests and biological entities, the laws of their growth and development, and impact of environment on them. Thus, silviculture can be described to include all practical and theoretical aspects of silvics.
Objects of Silviculture:
Study of silviculture helps to attain the following object:
To derive environmental benefits: Soil and water conservation, control of air and noise pollution, wild life conservation, regulation of climatic condition, regulation of water cycle.
Raising species of more economic value: Industrial and economic growth through.
Production of high-quality timer: Silviculture techniques help of avoid the problem of crooked, malformed, disease or defective timber and thus help to produce goods quality timber.
Production of more volume per unit area: Unmanaged forests may be too dense or too open, less production, premature death of trees silviculture helps to solve these problems.
Reduction of rotation period: In Unmanaged forests the rotation tends to be longer.
Afforestation of blank areas: Waste lands can be used for forests
Creation of plantation: Man made forests or plantations may be created in placed of natural forests.
Introduction of exotics: Successful introduction of exotic species is possible.
Employment potential: In any plantation operation, the labour component account for 60 to 70% of the total financial input.
Increase in the production of fuel and fodder: In development countries like India it is important aspect.
Forest Industries: Resin for resin and turpentine industry, pulp wood for paper industry, industrial wood for match and timber industry, railway, etc, minor forests product based industries.