System Approach- Fallow in Rotation
Fallow: is the practice of allowing crop land to lie idle during a growing season to build up the soil moisture & fertility content so that a better crop can be produced in the following year. A fallow year or season is one in which the field is not cultivated with any crop but left without a crop. The field may be left undisturbed in a ploughed condition or kept clean by frequent cultivations.
It is usually worked periodically to control weeds and improve moisture infiltration.
Points to be considered for planning the crop rotation: Farmer should consider the following factors while planning the crop rotation
1. Net profit.
2. Growth habit & nutrient requirements of different crops.
3. Effect of one crop on the other hand that is succeeding.
4. Soil type & slope &
5. Infestation of weeds, diseases & pests.
These factors should be considered to set the good crop rotation based on these factors; one should also consider the following points:
1. A shallow rooted grain crop, a deep rooted cash crop and a restorative crop should be included in the rotation which will provide food, fodder & cash to the farmer & maintain soil productivity.
2. The selection of crops should be made, taking into consideration soil, climate & market demand.
3. In case of irrigated areas, the rotation should be fixed on the extent of availability of water supply so that 2 or more crops can be taken from the same field in one year.
4. In case of rain fed areas, if sufficient moisture is left over in the soil after the harvest of Kharif crops, some minor crops requiring less moisture like pulses may be grown.
5. Both wide row spaced crops & thickly planted crops should be included.
6. Crops of diverse botanical relationship should be alternated as an insect or disease will attack closely related species but will not injure unrelated species.
7. A logical sequence of crops should be set up making full use of all available information as to effect of each crop in rotation on the succeeding crops to ensure maximum yields & higher quality.
8. Ordinarily, the area devoted to each crop should be consistent acreage from year to year.
9. Enough elasticity may be kept in the rotation.
10. Depending upon the soil type, i.e. more or less fertile, low lying, acidic or alkaline soils, stress should be gien to the crop rotation considering its importance.
11. Importance, location of farm and region base crops should be included in the crop rotation.
12.Legumes should be included in the crop rotation with non-legumes as it is multi advantageous crop such as fixes atmospheric nitrogen, covers the land so prevent erosion, smother weeds.