System of Training for Fruit Crops
1. Central Leader:
This system of training is adopted such types of trees which have a pronounced apical dominance. Here the main trunk grows undisturbed. On account of vigorous and rapid growth of the main trunk the tree develops a close center and grows to great heights. The side branches remain more on less shaped and consequently they would be lower in vigour and productivity. Since the plants would be very tall, the spraying and harvesting operation become difficult and costly e.g. pear and soma varieties of apple. This is not encouraged now.
2. Open Center:
In this system, the main stem is allowed to grow only up to a certain height by heading within a year of planting and all the subsequent vegetative growth promoted by lateral branches. This results in a low head and as such the bulk of crop is bome closer to the ground. In contrast to the central later system, open center system all’s to sunshine to be equality distubuted to all the branches. The open center trained trees are more fruitful resides greatly facilitate the operation like spraying, thinning and harvesting however , the branches from weak croteches since the branches arise very close to one another almost from the same point. So there is a certain amount of risk of splitting of the branches when there is a heaver of fruit on the trees. in areas of highlight intensity, such trees suffer from sever sunscalted injuries, e.g Pear, Apple etc.
3. Modified Leader System:
This system stands intermediate between the central leader and the open center, combining the advantages of both the system. It is developed first by training the tree to the leader type allowing the central stem to grow unsharpened for first four to five years. The main branches are allowed to arise on the main stem at reasonable intervals. After the required number of branches has arisen the main stem is cut off. The top laterals will take the place of the main stem. The result in a fairly strong and moderately spreading type of tress. E.g. Pear, Apple, Walnuts, etc.