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Standardization of Milk

Objective:

To learn the adjustment of fat and SNF of milk to the desired level, to meet the legal standards.

Relevant information:

Standardization of milk refers to the adjustment which means rising or lowering of fat and solids not fat levels of milk. The standardization of milk is commonly done in case of market milk supply and also in case of manufacture of milk products. e.g. condensed milk, milk powder, ice-cream and cheese etc. the standardization is mostly done to have a uniform milk fat content in the finished dairy product. In India, milk is toned to 3 % fat or double toned 1.5 % by standardizing the fat content of milk and thus volume of milk is increased so that the milk can be supplied to the consumers at low price and to a large population.

Precaution:

Correct calculations by Pearson’s method regarding ingredients to be used for standardization.

**Material required:**

1) Whole milk,

2) skim milk/cream

3) Butter oil

4) Skim milk

5) Thermometer

**Apparatus:**

1. Multipurpose vat.

2. Weighting balance

3. Gerber’s fat unit

4. Quevenne’s Lactometer with jar

5. Thermometer 6. Richmond’s scale

**Procedure:**

1. Pleasure the quantity of whole milk.

2. Find out the fat SNF and Ts content

3. Measure the quantity of skim milk powder available or cream.

4 .Determine the fat % and SNF % of skim milk/skim milk powder/ cream.

5. Decide the fat level or SNF level of the milk to be standardized.

6. Calculate the requirement of skim milk/skim milk powder/cream by person’s method.

1. For fat adjustment

B (C-B) or (B-C)

A (A-C) or (C-A)

A = Fat % of cream

B = Fat % of skim milk

C = desired fat %on the final product

(A-C) or (C-A) = Represent the quantity of skim milk

(B-C) or (C-B) = Represent quantity of cream with high fat % B for SNF Adjustment

Y (Y-Z) or (Z-Y)

X (x-Z) or (Z-x)

X = SNF content of whole milk/cream

Y = SNF content of skim milk / powder

Z = Desired level of SNF

(x-Z) N (Z-x) = Represent the required quantity of skim milk

(Y-Z) N (Z-Y) = Represent the required quantity of cream / whole milk.

Weigh the required quantity of skim milk / skim milk powder cream and add in to the vat along with the material of which fat and SNF level is to adjusted.

Mix the contents thoroughly.

Take the fat / SNF content of the final product to check their desired level.

Sent for further processing and packaging.

**Calculations:**

1. Calculations how much cream containing 35 % fats to be added to 4000 kgs. Of milk containing 3.5 % fat to raised the fat content of milk to 4 % of fat.

2. Calculate how much scream of 35 % fat and how much milk of 3.5% fat to be mixed to make 400 kgs of milk testing 4 % fat.

3. Calculate how much skim milk should be removed from 300 kg of milk containing 3.5 % fat to increase the fat to 5 % assuming that the separate milk contains negligible amount of fat.

4. Calculate the quantities of 0.1 % fat content should be added to 500 kg of whole milk to 4.5 % fat content to decrease the fat to 3.5 %

5. Calculate the quantities of 0.1 % skim milk and 4.5 % whole milk to require being produce 500 kg of 3.5 % fat standardized milk.

6. Standardized 500 kg of cream of 40 % fat to 20 % fat by adding milk containing 3.0 % fat.

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