Tending Operations in Silviculture
For establishment of the regeneration and subsequent development of the forest crop up to harvesting, several operations are carried out. These operations are carried out in the forest crop at different stages of growth in order to provide a healthy environment for their development. These operations are called tending operations includes:
iv) Improvement Felling,
vi) Climber Cutting
Weeds may be controlled by following methods:
a) Mechanical Methods
b) Biological Methods
c) Chemical Methods
Cleaning is carried out in a crop which has not crossed the sapling stage and is defined as the cutting made in order to face the best individuals from undesirable one of the same age which interfere or are likely to interfere with the growth of the desired individuals. The greatest advantage offered by cleaning is the-proper regulation of the composition of the crop, particularly in mixed crops.
Methods of cleaning may be mechanical, biological and chemical as described under weeding.
Thinning is defined as a felling made in an immature stand for the purpose of improving the growth and form of the trees that remain, without permanently breaking the canopy. Thinning is a tending operation carried out in a crop beyond the sapling stage and up to the beginning of regeneration period. Thinning principles are so formulated that these are applicable only to pure even aged or relatively even, aged crop or even aged groups of the trees in a crop.
Thinning principles have been developed on the basis of natural development of the stand. Thus, thinning, takes place naturally in a density stocked forest under the law of Survival of the fittest.