Training of Fruit Crop
Training can therefore be defined as ‘an operation done to a plant by which it is made to develop an frame work or structure land this is spreading on pergola with or without pruning of plant pears and training is usually done when the plant / shrubs vines are young.
It is necessary to pay sufficient attention for training of plants during the first few years of planting. During this period, the pre planned frame work as decided by the grower should be allowed to develop. The main points to be kept in view while training the fruit these are:
Objects of Training:
1. To admit adequate sun light and air to the center of the tree and to expose maximum leaf area to the sun.
2. To limit the growth and spread of the tree so that various cultural operation such as spaying and harvesting are performed at minimum cost.
3. To build the frame work and arrangement of scaffold branches.
4. To build the structure of the tree is such heights at which the tres are less exposed for sunscald and wind damage.
Before attachment to train of any tree, one should decide the height of the head or crown. Depending upon the height of the crown from ground level, the plants can be grouped in two:
a) High Head and
b) Low Head
a) High Head:
In this case, the main branches are encouraged about one meter or higher up from the ground level. In case of these plants, cultural operations with animal or mechanically drawn implements can be carried out easily. In the tropical climate, the high headed trees are unsuitable as they are prone to sunscalted and wind damage.
b) Low Head:
Main branches forming the foundation frame work of the tree are encouraged on the trunk at a height of 1 meter from the ground level. The low headed trees are now becoming common all over the world as they come into bearing comparatively earlier, are able to resist stormy winds more effectively and spraying and harvesting expense are reduced.
How to Train the Plats:
The formation of the main frame work of the tree is most important part of training. Usually two to four main branches are encouraged at almost the same height. These should be allowed be rise from different direction, at some distance from one another as to from a balanced head. These branches are called scaffold branches. The frame work is greatly strengthen if the branches are spaced at 15 cm apart vertically on the main tarn. If two or more branches of equal size are allowed to arise from one place, they from a bad crotch ehicjh is after prone to spilt stem except a few like pomegranate custard apple, fig, etc. which are better trained to two of three stems.