Transmission of Mycoplasms like Organisms (MLOs)
1. MLOs are found exclusively in phloem tissue of infected plants and require a vector for pheir dispersal.
2. A majority of MLOs are transmitted by leaf hopper, tree hoppers, plant hopper, aphids, and mites also play a role in transmission of MLOs.
3. The vector acquires the MLOs while feeding on contaminated phloem. Incubation period ranges between 10 to 45 days depending upon the temperature. During this period MLOs multiply in the body organs of vectors particularly in salivary glands and hemolymph.
4. MLOs are not passed on through the eggs of contaminated insects.
5. In addition to vectors, MLOs are also transmitted by grafting and by the plant parasite like dodder.