Types of Agro- Forestry
Rotational Agro- Forestry:
It is tradition shifting cultivation in which trees and woody species of natural regeneration are rotated ( 5 to 40 years ) with the cultivation of animal ( 1 to 3 years) substituting improved natural fallows, such as multipurpose tea gardens can make improvements in rotational agro- forestry or shifting cultivation, the improved fallows may also serve as wood lots, home gardens and compound farms in comparision with traditional shifting cultivation based on natural fallow, tree species composition can be controlled in improved planted fallows:
Inter Cropping Systems:
I/C system imply the continuing presence of both annual and perennial groups of plants on the same sight at the same time. Some of the example of I? C systems of agro- forestry include alley cropping, boundary planting of trees and woody hedges.
In cassava based there tier cropping system comprising the perennial 9 Leucaena leucocephala and Eucalyptus) the annual (Cassava) and the seasonal (G.nut, French been/ vegetable, cow pea) the interaction between component species were studied on slopping laterite soils of Kerala foe three years. The wood yield of Eucalyptus was found to be increase in association with inter crops. Cassava + G.nut resulting in the best growth of Eucalyptus. Green forage yield of Leucaena was adversely affected by cassava but was improved by inclusion of short duration seasonal crops.The spread and mean length of laterite roots of Eucalyptus and Leucaena were restricted by Cassava and also pod yield of both the seasonal crops when grown in association. Monocropping of cassava was found to improve the fertility and increase in phosphorus and potassium content of the soil was observed when grown in association with Eucalyptus and Leucaena and soil fertility declined considerly after three years of cultivation of tree species. The nutrient uptake by Cassava was low when grown with perennial species. Both runoff and soil loss were effectively reduced when Cassava was growth in staggered mounds under Eucalyptus and Leucaena.
Wind Breaks and Shelter Belts:
Any barrier erected to break or slow down the effect of wind is known as wind break. A belt of trees or shrubs maintained for the purpose of shelter from wind sun or snow drill is called a shelter belt. The area coverage under shelter belts are planted in parallel line one after another so that the direction of wind would necessarily reduce the wind velocity. The climatic factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind velocity, snow evapo transpiration and frost are influenced to some extent by wind breaks and shelter belts. Wind breaks and shelter belts have beneficial effect of conserving the soil and moisture in the sheltered areas. Maximum protection is obtained when wind breaks are planted in right angle to the direction of wind. In areas with 5% slope, wind breaks would be planted along the contours. Wind break should be continuous and any a passage or road through wind breaks should be avoided.
It is a practice of forestry on lands other than conversational forests with an object to benefit the rural communities. Social forestry is programme of forestry development and conversation under various agro- climatic and social conditions through:
i) Mixed plantation on wasteland and Panchayat lands and
ii) Reforestation of degraded of forest and raising shelter belts.
The objectives of social forestry is to meet the basic needs of rural community aiming at bettering the condition of living through
i) Meeting the fuel wood, fodder and small timber requirement,
ii) Protecting agricultural fields against wind,
iii) Meeting the recreational need,
iv) Maximizing production and increasing farm returns.