Types of Pupa
Pupa is a non feeding and inactive stage of insect between the larva and adult with complete metamorphosis. The insect pupae are classified into two types on the basis of mode of emergence of adults from the pupal case.
1. Decticous Pupa: In this of pupa, more or less fully formed adult, within the pupal case has relatively powerful sclerotized mandibles by means of which it comes out from the pupa. This type of pupa is always execrated (free) type e.g. Lace wing, Scorpion flies.
2. Adecticous Pupa: In this of pupa, the adult developed within pupal case, often possess reduced and non articulating mandibles which are not utilized for escaping from the pupa. Two main types of adecticous pupae are:
a. Exarate Adecticous Pupa: In this type of pupae the appendages are free of any secondary attachment to the body e.g. Honey bee, wasp, white grub etc.
b. Object Adecticous Pupa: In this type, the appendages are family pressed against its body and are soldered to it e.g. Gram pod borer, lemon butter fly etc.
3. Coarctate Pupa: In this type, the appendages are not visible. The pupa is enclosed in a puparium, formed from the last larval skin. This is clearly adecticous exarate pupa e.g. House fly, fruit fly etc.
Significance of Pupal Stage:
1. Being non feeding stage it avoids or reduces the competition for food.
2. Helps in re-modeling and re-structuring or the body to exploit many habitats.
3. Chances of survival of insects are increased by entering in inactive stages.