Varieties of Arecanut
Varieties of the several species of the genus Areca, Areca catechu is the most commonly cultivated species. There is no systematic classification of Varieties. Different varieties exist exhibiting variable nut characters as shape,. size, attachment . to spadix, taste, texture, bearing period and yield. The indigenous arecamit cultivars are known by the place where they are grown.
1. South Kanaka:
It is largely grown in South Kanara district of Karnataka and Kassaragod district of Kerala. It is characterised by large nuts and uniform bearing. The average yield is 1,5 chali/palm/year (7 kg. ripe nuts). ..
It is grown extensively in Maland area of Karnataka. It is preferred for tender nut processing and not as dry. nut. Its yield is comparable to South Kanara.
3. Sree Varjdhan or Rotha:
It is predominantly grow in coastal Maharashtra. The nuts are oval, in shape and the yield is 1.5 kg chali (7kg ripe nuts) per palm per year. The kernal colour when cut is marble white. Its endosperm is tastier than other varieties. It starts bearing after 6-7 years of planting.
It is grown widely in Mettupalayam area of Tamil Nadu, the nut size is very small.
This is grown in North East India.
This is grown in the Northern part of West Bengal. The nut is very big and uniform and much similar to Kahikuchi. It yields better than other selections. At Kidu farm in Karnataka it yielded 3.7 kg. chali (19.5 Kg. ripe nuts) per palm per year.
High Yielding Selection:
1. Mangala (VTL – 3)
It is a selection, from China and released for cultivation by Arecamit Research Station, Vittal (Kerala). It is semi-tall type and bearing starts after 3-5 years of planting. It has a number of desirable characters such as early bearing, early stabilization, high fruit set and yield. Its mean yield is 2 kg. chali (10 Kg ripe nuts) per palm per year. The nut possesses good quality attributes.
2. Sumanagala ( VTL-11):
It is introduced from Indonesia. It has all the desirable characters of VTL
3. Its mean yield is 33 Kg., Challi (17:5 Kg rupee nuts) /palm /year. This selection is also reported to be tolerant to burrowing nematode, Radopkolus similes.
3. SreeMangala (VTL – 17):
It is a selection from Singapore. Its annual mean yield is 3.1 Kg Chali (15.6 Kg raw nuts)/palm/year. It also tolerates Radopholns similes.