What is Plant Biotechnology?
The origin of Biotechnology can be traced back to prehistoric times, when microorganisms were already used for processes like fermentation. In 1920’s Clostridium acetobutylicum was used by Chaim Weizman for converting starch into butanol and acetone, latter was an essential component of explosive during World War- II. This raised hopes for commercial production of useful chemicals through biological processes, and may be considered as the first rediscovery of biotechnology in the present century. Similarly, during World War-II ( in 1940’s) , the production of penicillin (as an antibiotic discovered by Alexaner Flemming in 1929) on a large scale from cultures of Penicillium notatum marked the second rediscovery of biotechnology. The third rediscovery of biotechnology is its recent reincarnation in the form of recombinant –DNA technology, which led to the development of a variety of gene technologies and is thus considered to be greatest scientific revolution of this century.
Biotechnologies, as world indicate, is the product of interaction between the science and technology.
Definition of Plant Biotechnology:
1. Biotechnology is the application of biological organisms, system or processes to manufacturing and service industries.
2. Biotechnology is the integrated use of biochemistry , microbiology and engineering science in order to achieve technological application of the capabilities of micro-organism, cultured tissue cells and part thereof.
3. Biotechnology is “a technology using biological phenomenon for copying and manufacturing various kinds of useful substances.”
4. Biotechnology is “the controlled use of biological agents such as micro-organisms or cellular components for beneficial use. (U.S National Science Foundation)