The wind break means close planting of tall growing trees all around the orchard is called as wind breaks.
Fruit orchards usually cause heavy losses when exposed to strong wind. Heavy wind increases the losses of moisture both by increasing transportation and surface evaporation. The high winds also cause the damage to fruit trees braking of branches, destruction of blooms dropping of immature fruit and erosion of surface soil. The fruits are reduced on the exposed orchard firstly due to drying of a stigmatic fluid yield and secondly due to reduced activities of pollinating insect. The growth and yield in protected orchard is definitely better than the exposed orchard. Hence establishment of a tall growing windbreak is necessary to protect t orchard.
Selection of Wind Breaks:
While selecting wind more importance is given to the height than the thickness. Windbreaks will give full protection to a distance of 4-5 times the height of trees and partial protection for some distance where land is level. The wind break should be erect and tall growing, hardy and drought resistant occupy less space as for as possible. It should be mechanically strong and dense to resist maximum wind.
Planting and Spacing of Wind Breaks:
Planting of wind breaks should be done at least 2 years after plating of fruit trees. These wind breaks they are planted in rows. The first row of it should be planted 40 feet away from fruit plants one to two rows of such trees are planted on the west and south side of orchard at a close spacing to from a thick screen. They are plated at the spacing of 12 feet * 12 feet or 15 feet a thick screen. They wind breaks they are planted in rows.
Precaution After Planting of Wind Break:
The windbreak trees sometimes may compete to the fruit trees for water and nutrient. To prevent this competition, a trench may dug about 3 feet deep and 20 feet away from the row of wind break trees and all the roots of wind break trees exposed in the teach are cut off.
Species Used as Wind Breaks:
The trees are commonly used as windbreaks are as follows:
Polylthia langifolia, casurina equsitifolia, erythrina indica, eucalyptus ciirddors, gravilla robustus, dalbergia sisso, syzygium cumin, mangifera indica, Averhoa carambola, bambusa spp.
To stop soil erosion by wind the wind the breaks which are used, they are eryhina indica. Bionomia megaputomica, millingtionia hortensis, cassia pungent etc.
For protection of banana, papaya and beetle vine orchard a wind break of sysabenia spp. Are used.
Advantages of Wind Breaks:
1. It reduces the wind velocity.
2. It checks the evaporation losses of water from the soil surface.
3. It prevents the damage caused by cold wind and frost.
4. It increases the fruit production by minimizing wind damage.